Test Bank for Intermediate Accounting Volume 1 IFRS 1E- Kieso

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CHAPTER 1 FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING AND ACCOUNTING STANDARDS CHAPTER LEARNING OBJECTIVES 1. Identify the major financial statements and other means of financial reporting. 2. Explain how accounting assists in the efficient use of scarce resources. 3. Explain the need for high-quality standards. 4. Identify the objectives of financial reporting. 5. Identify the major policy-setting bodies and their role in the standard-setting process. 6. Explain the meaning of IFRS. 7. Describe the challenges facing financial reporting. *8. Identity the major U.S. policy-setting bodies and their role in the standard-setting process. * This material can be found in the Appendix to the chapter

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Test Bank for Intermediate Accounting: IFRS Edition

TRUE-FALSE—Conceptual 1. Financial accounting is the process of identifying, measuring, analyzing, and communicating financial information needed by management to plan, evaluate, and control an organization's operations. 2. Financial statements are the principal means through which financial information is communicated to those outside an enterprise. 3. The major financial statements used under International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) include the statement of changes in financial position and the statement of stockholders’ equity. 4. In order to provide information that is useful in decision making and capital allocation, the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) requires all companies to use a common currency. 5. Users of the financial information provided by a company use that information to make capital allocation decisions. 6. An effective process of capital allocation promotes productivity and provides an efficient market for buying and selling securities and obtaining and granting credit. 7. Over 115 countries require or permit use of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). 8. While objectives for financial reporting exist on an informal basis, no formal objectives have been adopted. 9. One weakness of accrual accounting is that it does not provide a good indication of the enterprise's present and continuing ability to generate favorable cash flows. 10. The passage of a new FASB Standards Statement requires the support of five of the seven board members. 11. International Financial Reporting Standards preceded International Accounting Standards. 12. The standard-setting structure used by the International Accounting Standards Board is very similar to that used by the Financial Accounting Standards Board. 13. The rules-based standards of IASB are more detailed than the simpler, principles-based standards of U.S. GAAP. 14. The International Accounting Standards Board issues International Financial Reporting Standards. 15. International Accounting Standards are no longer considered applicable because they have been replaced by International Financial Reporting Standards.

Full file at http://testbankinstant.CH/Test-Bank-for-IntermediateAccounting-Volume-1-IFRS-1E--Kieso-16. The standards issued by various standard-setting organizations around the world include standards that are profit-oriented and investor-focused. 17. The two major standard-setting organizations in the world are the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) and International Organization of Securities Commission (IOSCO). 18. IFRS is considered more comprehensive than U.S. GAAP and the standards contain more implementation guidance than U.S. GAAP. 19. The International Organization of Securities Commissions (IOSCO) sets accounting standards for those countries which have not yet adopted IFRS. 20. The International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) follows specific steps in developing International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS); the first step in the process is holding a public hearing. 21. A unanimous vote by all Board members is needed to issue a new International Financial Reporting Standard (IFRS). 22. The International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) has 14 members and each member of the IASB must come from a different country. 23. Interpretations issued by IFRIC are more authoritative than IASB Standards and Interpretations. 24. The International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) is a regulatory agency with enforcement powers for its International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). 25. International financial reporting interpretations (issued by the International Accounting Standards Board) are considered authoritative and must be followed. 26. Financial reports in the early 21st century did not provide any information about a company’s soft assets. 27. Accounting standards are now less likely to require the recording or disclosure of fair value information due to its inherent subjectivity. 28. IFRS are a product of careful logic or empirical findings and are not influenced by political action. 29. The expectations gap is caused by what the public thinks accountants should be doing and what accountants think they can do. 30. Ethical issues in financial accounting are governed by the AICPA. 31. Politics and political pressure in establishing IFRS is a negative force. 32. Significant financial reporting issues facing global financial reporting and efficient capital allocation include how to provide backward-looking information. 33. The Norwalk Agreement formalized the FASB’s and IASB’s commitment to convergence of U.S. GAAP and international standards. download full file at http://testbankinstant.com

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Test Bank for Intermediate Accounting: IFRS Edition

*34. Financial Accounting Concepts set forth fundamental objectives and concepts that are used in developing future standards of financial accounting and reporting. *35. The AICPA’s Code of Professional Conduct requires that members prepare financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles.

True-False Answers—Conceptual Item 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Ans. F T F F T T T

Item 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

Ans. F F F F T F T

Item 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21.

Ans. F F F F F F F

Item 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28.

Ans. F F F T F F F

Item 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35.

Ans. T F F F T T T

MULTIPLE CHOICE

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36.

The financial statements most frequently provided include all of the following except the a. statement of financial position. b. income statement. c. statement of cash flows. d. statement of retained earnings.

37.

All the following are differences between financial and managerial accounting in how accounting information is used except to a. plan and control company's operations. b. decide whether to invest in the company. c. evaluate borrowing capacity to determine the extent of a loan to grant. d. All the above.

38.

Which of the following represents a form of communication through financial reporting but not through financial statements? a. Statement of financial position. b. President's letter. c. Income statement. d. Notes to financial statements.

39.

The process of identifying, measuring, analyzing, and communicating financial information needed by management to plan, evaluate, and control an organization’s operations is called a. financial accounting. b. managerial accounting. c. tax accounting. d. auditing.

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The major financial statements include all of the following except: a. Statement of financial position. b. Statement of changes in financial position. c. Statement of comprehensive income. d. Statement of stockholders’ equity.

41.

Which of the following statements is true? a. Over 115 countries require or permit use of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). b. Canada is the most significant holdout from use of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). c. Nearly 50% of investors in the United States own foreign securities, either directly or through funds. d. To facilitate efficient capital allocation, investors need relevant information stated in a common currency.

42.

How does accounting help the capital allocation process attract investment capital? a. Provides timely, relevant information. b. Encourages innovation. c. Promotes productivity. d. a and b above.

43.

An effective capital allocation process a. promotes productivity. b. encourages innovation. c. provides an efficient market for buying and selling securities. d. all of these.

44.

What would be an advantage of having all countries adopt and follow the same accounting standards? a. Consistency. b. Comparability. c. Lower preparation costs. d. b and c

45.

General-purpose financial statements are the product of a. financial accounting. b. managerial accounting. c. both financial and managerial accounting. d. neither financial nor managerial accounting.

46.

Users of financial reports include all of the following except: a. creditors. b. government agencies. c. unions. d. All of these are users.

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Test Bank for Intermediate Accounting: IFRS Edition

47.

The information provided by financial reporting pertains to a. individual business enterprises, rather than to industries or an economy as a whole or to members of society as consumers. b. business industries, rather than to individual enterprises or an economy as a whole or to members of society as consumers. c. individual business enterprises, industries, and an economy as a whole, rather than to members of society as consumers. d. an economy as a whole and to members of society as consumers, rather than to individual enterprises or industries.

48.

What is a major objective of financial reporting? a. Provide information that is useful to management in making decisions. b. Provide information that clearly portray nonfinancial transactions. c. Provide information that is useful to assess the amounts, timing, and uncertainty of perspective cash receipts. d. Provide information that excludes claims to the resources.

49.

Which of the following statements is not an objective of financial reporting? a. Provide information that is useful in investment and credit decisions. b. Provide information about enterprise resources, claims to those resources, and changes to them. c. Provide information on the liquidation value of an enterprise. d. Provide information that is useful in assessing cash flow prospects.

50.

Accrual accounting is used because a. cash flows are considered less important. b. it provides a better indication of ability to generate cash flows than the cash basis. c. it recognizes revenues when cash is received and expenses when cash is paid. d. none of the above.

51.

One element of the objective of financial reporting is to provide a. information about the investors in the business entity. b. information about the liquidation values of the resources held by the enterprise. c. information that is useful in assessing cash flow prospects. d. information that will attract new investors.

52.

As part of the objective of general-purpose financial reporting, there is an emphasis on “assessing cash flow prospects.” Under International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) this is interpreted to mean: a. Cash basis accounting is preferred over accrual based accounting. b. Information about the financial effects of cash receipts and cash payments is generally considered the best indicator of a company’s present and continuing ability to generate favorable cash flows. c. Over the long run, trends in revenues and expenses are generally more meaningful than trends in cash receipts and disbursements. d. All of the choices are correct regarding “assessing cash flow prospects” under IFRS.

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53.

What is due process in the context of standard setting at the IASB? a. FASB operates in full view of the public. b. Public hearings are held on proposed accounting standards. c. Interested parties can make their views known. d. All of the above.

54.

Which of these statements regarding the IFRS and U.S. GAAP is correct? a. U.S. GAAP is considered to be "principles-based" and more detailed than IFRS. b. U.S. GAAP is considered to be "rules-based" and less detailed than IFRS. c. IFRS is considered to be "principles-based" and less detailed than U.S. GAAP d. Both U.S. GAAP and IFRS are considered to be "rules-based", but U.S. GAAP tends to be more complex.

55.

The IASB's standard-setting structure includes all of the following except: a. Financial Reporting Interpretations Committee b. Standards Advisory Council c. Standards Comparison Committee d. Trustees

56.

The following published documents are part of the "due process" system used by the IASB in the evolution of a typical IASB Standard 1. Exposure Draft 2. IASB Standard 3. Discussion Paper The chronological order in which these items are released is as follows: a. 1, 2, 3. b. 1, 3, 2. c. 2, 3, 1. d. 3, 1, 2.

57.

The purpose of the International Accounting Standards Board is to a. issue enforceable standards which regulate the financial accounting and reporting of multinational corporations. b. develop a uniform currency in which the financial transactions of companies throughout the world would be measured. c. develop a single set of high-quality IFRS. d. arbitrate accounting disputes between auditors and international companies.

58.

In the past, many countries have relied on their own standard-setting organizations. The standards issued by these various standard-setting organizations around the world include a. Tax-oriented standards. b. Business-based standards. c. Principles-based standards. d. All of the choices are correct.

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Test Bank for Intermediate Accounting: IFRS Edition

59.

The two major standard-setting organizations in the world are a. Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) and the International Organization of Securities Commission (IOSCO). b. Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) and the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB). c. The International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) and International Organization of Securities Commission (IOSCO). d. The International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) and the Standards Advisory Council (SAC).

60.

When comparing U.S. GAAP and International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) a. IFRS are considered more comprehensive than U.S. GAAP. b. IFRS contain more implementation guidance than U.S. GAAP. c. IFRS are considered more principles-based than U.S. GAAP. d. All of the choices are correct regarding U.S. GAAP and IFRS.

61.

Which of the following organizations is not among the four international standard-setting organizations? a. Accounting Standards Committee Foundation (IASCF). b. Standards Advisory Council (SAC). c. International Financial Reporting Interpretations Committee (IFRIC). d. International Organization of Securities Commissions (IOSCO).

62.

The International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) follows specific steps in developing International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). Place the following steps in the correct order: 1) Research and analysis conducted; preliminary views of pros and cons issued. 2) Topics identified and placed on the agenda. 3) Board evaluates responses, final standard issued. 4) Public hearing on proposed standard 5) Board evaluates research, issues exposure draft. a. b. c. d.

1, 2, 3, 4, 5 2, 1, 4, 5, 3 1, 2, 5, 4, 3 1, 2, 5, 3, 4

63.

Which of the following is true with regard to the characteristics of the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB)? a. A unanimous vote by all Board members is needed to issue a new International Financial Reporting Standard (IFRS). b. The IASB consists of 14 part-time members. c. Each member of the IASB must come from a different country. d. IASB members are appointed for 5-year renewable terms.

64.

International financial reporting interpretations (issued by the International Accounting Standards Board) a. Are considered authoritative and must be followed.

Full file at http://testbankinstant.CH/Test-Bank-for-IntermediateAccounting-Volume-1-IFRS-1E--Kieso-b. Cover newly identified financial reporting issues not specifically addressed by the IASB. c. Cover issues where unsatisfactory or conflicting interpretations have developed. d. All of the choices are correct regarding International financial reporting interpretations. 65.

Which of the following statements is true regarding the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB)? a. The IASB is a regulatory agency with enforcement powers for its International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). b. The IASB is a public organization, funded by taxpayer dollars from member countries. c. Is compromised of 14 members from 9 countries. d. All of the choices are correct regarding the IASB.

66.

Which of the following is not one of the major types of pronouncements issued by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB)? a. International financial reporting standard. b. Memorandum of understanding. c. Framework for financial reporting. d. International financial reporting interpretations.

67.

Which of the following has the highest authoritative support? a. International Financial Reporting Standards. b. International Accounting Standards. c. Interpretations of the IFRIC. d. Framework for Financial Reporting.

68.

Financial statements in the early 2000s provided information related to a. nonfinancial measurements. b. forward-looking data. c. hard assets (inventory and plant assets). d. none of these.

69.

Which of the following is not a major challenge facing the accounting profession? a. Nonfinancial measurements. b. Timeliness. c. Accounting for hard assets. d. Forward-looking information.

70.

What is a possible danger if politics plays too big a role in developing IFRS? a. Financial reporting standards that are not truly generally accepted. b. Individuals may influence the standards. c. User groups become active. d. The IASB delegates its authority to elected officials.

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Test Bank for Intermediate Accounting: IFRS Edition

71.

What is "expectation gap"? a. The difference between what the public thinks the accountant is not doing and what the accountant knows they don't do. b. The difference between what the public thinks the accountant is doing and what Congress says the accountant is doing. c. The difference between what the public thinks the accountant is doing and what the accountant thinks they can do. d. The difference between what the accountant is doing and what the Courts say the accountant should be doing.

72.

Which of the following is an ethical concern of accountants? a. Earnings manipulation. b. Conservative accounting. c. Industry practices. d. None of the above.

73.

The international financial reporting environment includes challenges in financial reporting including all of the following except: a. Political environment. b. Expectations gap. c. Decision-usefulness. d. Ethics.

74.

Significant financial reporting issues facing global financial reporting and efficient capital allocation include all of the following except: a. How to provide backward-looking information. b. How to report nonfinancial measures such as customer satisfaction. c. How to provide forward-looking information. d. How to provide real-time financial statement information.

75.

The Norwalk Agreement a. Sets forth fundamental objectives and concepts used in developing future standards of financial reporting. b. Formalized the FASB’s and IASB’s commitment to convergence of U.S. GAAP and international standards. c. Facilitates cross-border cooperation, reduces global systemic risk, protects investors, and ensures fair and efficient markets. d. All of the choices are correct regarding the Norwalk Agreement.

*76.

What is the relationship between the Securities and Exchange Commission and accounting standard setting in the United States? a. The SEC requires all companies listed on an exchange to submit their financial statements to the SEC. b. The SEC coordinates with the AICPA in establishing accounting standards. c. The SEC has a mandate to establish accounting standards for enterprises under its jurisdiction. d. The SEC reviews financial statements for compliance.

*77.

Why was it believed that accounting standards that were issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board would carry more weight? a. Smaller membership.

Full file at http://testbankinstant.CH/Test-Bank-for-IntermediateAccounting-Volume-1-IFRS-1E--Kieso-b. FASB board members are well-paid. c. FASB board members must be CPAs. d. Due process. *78.

The passage of a new FASB Standards Statement requires the support of a. all Board members. b. three Board members. c. four Board members. d. five Board members.

*79.

What is the purpose of Emerging Issues Task Force? a. Provide interpretation of existing standards. b. Provide a consensus on how to account for new and unusual financial transactions. c. Provide interpretive guidance. d. Provide timely guidance on select issues.

*80.

Which organization is responsible for issuing Emerging Issues Task Force Statements? a. FASB b. CAP c. APB d. SEC

*81.

The role of the Securities and Exchange Commission in the formulation of accounting principles can be best described as a. consistently primary. b. consistently secondary. c. sometimes primary and sometimes secondary. d. non-existent.

*82.

The body that has the power to prescribe the accounting practices and standards to be employed by companies that fall under its jurisdiction is the a. FASB. b. AICPA. c. SEC. d. APB.

*83.

Companies that are listed on a stock exchange are required to submit their financial statements to the a. AICPA. b. APB c. FASB. d. SEC.

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Test Bank for Intermediate Accounting: IFRS Edition

*84.

The Financial Accounting Standards Board a. has issued a series of pronouncements entitled Statements on Auditing Standards. b. was the forerunner of the current Accounting Principles Board. c. is the arm of the Securities and Exchange Commission responsible for setting financial accounting standards. d. is appointed by the Financial Accounting Foundation.

85.

The Financial Accounting Foundation a. oversees the operations of the FASB. b. oversees the operations of the AICPA. c. provides information to interested parties on financial reporting issues. d. works with the Financial Accounting Standards Advisory Council to provide information to interested parties on financial reporting issues.

*86.

The major distinction between the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) and its predecessor, the Accounting Principles Board (APB), is a. the FASB issues exposure drafts of proposed standards. b. all members of the FASB are fully remunerated, serve full time, and are independent of any companies or institutions. c. all members of the FASB possess extensive experience in financial reporting. d. a majority of the members of the FASB are CPAs drawn from public practice.

*87.

The Financial Accounting Standards Board employs a "due process" system which a. is an efficient system for collecting dues from members. b. enables interested parties to express their views on issues under consideration. c. identifies the accounting issues that are the most important. d. requires that all accountants must receive a copy of financial standards.

*88.

The purpose of the Emerging Issues Task Force is to a. develop a conceptual framework as a frame of reference for the solution of future problems. b. lobby the FASB on issues that affect a particular industry. c. do research on issues that relate to long-term accounting problems. d. issue statements which reflect a consensus on how to account for new and unusual financial transactions that need to be resolved quickly.

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Which of the following pronouncements were issued by the Accounting Principles Board? a. Accounting Research Bulletins b. Opinions c. Statements of Position d. Statements of Financial Accounting Concepts

89.

Full file at http://testbankinstant.CH/Test-Bank-for-IntermediateAccounting-Volume-1-IFRS-1E--Kieso-*90.

The purpose of Statements of Financial Accounting Concepts is to a. establish GAAP. b. modify or extend the existing FASB Standards Statement. c. form a conceptual framework for solving existing and emerging problems. d. determine the need for FASB involvement in an emerging issue.

*91.

Members of the Financial Accounting Standards Board are a. employed by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA). b. part-time employees. c. required to hold a CPA certificate. d. independent of any other organization.

*92.

The most significant current source of generally accepted accounting principles is the a. AICPA. b. SEC. c. APB. d. FASB.

*93.

What is the purpose of a FASB Staff Position? a. Provide interpretation of existing standards. b. Provide a consensus on how to account for new and unusual financial transactions. c. Provide interpretive guidance. d. Provide timely guidance on select issues.

*94.

Financial accounting standard-setting in the United States a. can be described as a social process which reflects political actions of various interested user groups as well as a product of research and logic. b. is based solely on research and empirical findings. c. is a legalistic process based on rules promulgated by governmental agencies. d. is democratic in the sense that a majority of accountants must agree with a standard before it becomes enforceable.

Multiple Choice Answers Item

36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44.

Ans.

d d b b b a a d d

Item

45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53.

Ans.

a d a c c b c c d

Item

54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62.

Ans.

c c d c d b c d b

Item

63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71.

Ans.

d d c b a c c a c

Item

72. 73. 74. 75. 76. 77. 78. 79. 80.

Ans.

Item

a c a b c d b b a

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81. 82. 83. 84. 85. 86. 87. 88. 89.

Ans.

c c d d a b b d b

Item

90. 91. 92. 93. 94.

Ans.

c d d c a

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Test Bank for Intermediate Accounting: IFRS Edition

EXERCISES Ex. 1-95—Objectives of financial reporting. What is the objective of general-purpose financial reporting by business enterprises? Solution 1-95 The objectives of financial reporting is to provide financial information about the reporting entity that is useful to present and potential equity investors, lenders and other creditors in making decisions in their capacity as capital providers. Information that is decision-useful to capital providers may also be useful to other users of financial reporting who are not investors. Ex. 1-96—Due process In establishing financial accounting standards, the IASB has a thorough, open transparent due process. List the elements that comprise the IASB due process. Solution 1-96 1. An independent standard-setting board overseen by a geographically and professionally diverse body of trustees. 2. A thorough and systematic process for developing standards. 3. Engagement with investors, regulators, business leaders, and the global accountancy profession at every stage of the process. 4. Collaborative efforts with the worldwide standard-setting community. Ex. 1-97—IASB. List and discuss the characteristics of the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) that reinforced the importance of an open, transparent and independent process. Solution 1-97 1. Membership. The membership consists of 14 members two who are part-time. Members are well-paid and appointed for five-year renewable terms. The 14 members come from nine different countries. 2. Autonomy. The IASB is not part of any other professional organization. It is appointed by and answerable only to the International Accounting Standards Committee Foundation. 3. Independence. IASB members must sever all ties from their past employees. The Full time members are selected for their expertise in standard-setting rather than to represent a given country. 4. Voting. Nine of 14 votes are needed to issue a new IFRS.

Full file at http://testbankinstant.CH/Test-Bank-for-IntermediateAccounting-Volume-1-IFRS-1E--Kieso-Ex. 1-98—Evolution of a statement of financial accounting standards. In establishing financial accounting standards, two basic premises of the IASB are (1) The IASB should be responsive to the needs and viewpoints of the entire economic community, not just the accounting profession. (2) It should operate in full view of the public through a "due process" system that gives interested persons ample opportunity to make their views known. To ensure achievement of these goals, what are the steps does the IASB follow in the development of a typical IFRS? Solution 1-98 The steps in the development of an IFRS are: a. Topics are identified and placed on the Board's agenda. b. Research and analysis are conducted and preliminary views of pros and cons are issued. c. A public hearing on the proposed standard is held. d. The Board evaluates the research and public response and issues an exposure draft. e. The Board evaluates the responses and changes the exposure draft, if necessary. The final standard is then issued. Ex. 1-99—Common set of standards Why would it be advantageous for U.S. GAAP and IFRS to be the same? Solution 1-99 Relevant and reliable financial information is a necessity for viable capital markets. Unfortunately, financial statements from companies outside the United States are often prepared using different principles than U.S. GAAP. As a result, international companies have to develop financial information in different ways. Beyond the additional costs these companies incur, users of financial statements are often forced to understand at least two sets of GAAP. It is not surprising that there is a growing demand for one set of high quality international standards. Ex. 1-100—Principles-based versus rules-based standards What is the difference between principles-based and rules-based accounting rules? Are IFRS more principles-based than U.S. GAAP? Explain. Solution 1-100 Principles-based rules are considered to be based on broad accounting principles aimed at ensuring that companies’ financial statements are fairly presented. Rules-based standards are generally quite detailed, and in many instances follow a “check-box” mentality that some contend may shield auditors and companies from legal liability. Because IFRS tend to be simpler and less stringent in accounting and disclosure requirements, they are generally considered more principles-based than U.S. GAAP.

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